Technical Articles

Links to Technical Articles

Manitoba Addressing Deteriorated
Pay Now Or Pay Big Later
Addendum Addresses Standard Of Care For Plastic Pipe
Abrasion Resistance Of Concrete Pipe
The Implied Ability Of Pipe To Support Load
This Could Easily Happen In Ontario!
Designers Need To Do More Than Reference A Standard
Relining Culverts Can Reduce Hydraulic Capacity
Should Someone Call A Plumber?
Why Deflection Matters For Plastic Pipe
Estimated Material Service Life Of Drainage Pipes
Deficient Drainage System Leads To Demolition Of Sudbury Library
Trenching Safety Can Compromise Plastic Pipe Performance
Concrete Pipe Reused For Markdale Storm Sewer
Concrete Pipe Replaces Two Year Old Hdpe Storm Sewer
Plant Prequalification Program
Assessments Of Gravity Pipe Systems
Drainage Systems Under The Ontario Building Code
Black Fibre Pipe
Ontario Is Ready For Standardized Prebenched Mh
Clarifying Hdpe Standards In Canada


MANITOBA ADDRESSING DETERIORATED

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PAY NOW OR PAY BIG LATER

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 ADDENDUM ADDRESSES STANDARD OF CARE FOR PLASTIC PIPE 

 ThkepointothAddenduincluded:

  •  Certification Letter from contractor - includes shop drawings, calculations, and installation procedures.

  • Design calculations stamped by a professional engineer registered in the Province of Ontario

  • Trench box detail stamped by a professional engineer registered in the Province of Ontario addressing the potential conflict between ASTM D2321 and Occupational Health and Safety Act

  • Shop drawings for connection to manholes

  • Deflection testing at completion of construction and again at one year before the expiration of the warranty period

  • Manufacturer's representative on-site during construction

 RESOURCE #CPJ-019
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ABRASION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE PIPE

 

Many flexible pipe advertisements promote the abrasion resistance of their products and usually draw a comparison to concrete pipe. This marketing strategy diverts attention away from the fact that certain plastics get brittle or lose strength over time, and may also deteriorate when exposed to common elements such as ultraviolet light, hydrocarbons, and temperature fluctuations. While all pipe materials may be susceptible to long-term abrasion damage, concrete offers the longest proven history and is one of the few pipe materials that can easily be repaired or rehabilitated.

 RESOURCE #CPJ-018
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THE IMPLIED ABILITY OF PIPE TO SUPPORT LOAD

 When referring to sewers, sustainable infrastructure might get translated as the need for long-term pipe performance.  For these underground pipelines, their ability to meet the desired design performance is highly dependent upon the support given to the pipe by way of its bedding and/or embedment as constructed during installation. Sometimes, there is an implied confidence that a pipe will support any applied load (i.e. earth load, live load) without truly understanding the pipe, doing a pipe design, or achieving a proper installation.

 RESOURCE #CPJ-017
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THIS COULD EASILY HAPPEN IN ONTARIO!

A corrugated steel pipe collapsed under the weight of a school bus in Rhome, Texas on Thursday January 26th, leaving the bus stuck with its rear in the air. Only four of the day’s 63 passengers were still on board at the time and the driver was able to get those students evacuated with no injuries.

RESOURCE #CPJ-016

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DESIGNERS NEED TO DO MORE THAN REFERENCE A STANDARD

On a regular basis the professional engineers at Ontario Concrete Pipe Association are presented with specifications for drainage systems that do little more than reference a national or provincial manufacturing standard for a particular type of pipe. Typically in Ontario, the referenced standards are developed by the Canadian Standards Association or Ontario Provincial Standards. Design engineers charged with designing our province’s infrastructure need to do more than just reference a standard. Specifically for drainage systems and sanitary sewers, designers need to recognize that successful projects demand three key elements:

•Quality pipe

•Sound engineering and design

•Proper installation and post installation inspection

RESOURCE #CPJ-015
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RELINING CULVERTS CAN REDUCE HYDRAULIC CAPACITY

The following statement is made in a research paper that was presented at both the Transportation Association of Canada Annual Conference in Halifax in September 2010, and again at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting in Washington D.C. in January 2011.

RESOURCE #CPJ-014
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SHOULD SOMEONE CALL A PLUMBER?

No one likes a drippy faucet at home, so why should a drippy pipe underground be any different? Municipalities in Ontario are paying far greater attention to the state of their sewers. The cliché,“out of sight, out of mind” is not an accepted practice anymore.

There are several reasons why a sewer pipe with a leak is not desirable.

RESOURCE #CPJ-013
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WHY DEFLECTION MATTERS FOR PLASTIC PIPE

 Pipe used in sewer and culvert applications are categorized as either “rigid” such as clay or concrete, or “flexible” such as plastic, glass reinforced polymer, or corrugated steel. The common definition for a flexible pipe is: a pipe that can deflect 2% or more without cracking. While new types of flexible pipe products are continually being introduced, one critical aspect of flexible pipe design has not changed; minimize ring deflection to ensure good, long-term performance of the pipe.

RESOURCE #CPJ-012
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ESTIMATED MATERIAL SERVICE LIFE OF DRAINAGE PIPES

When it comes to selecting different materials for pipe systems (i.e. sewers or culverts), the common choices are concrete, steel, and plastic. Each material has a history, and in terms of pipe applications, each carries a different track record for serviceability. "Serviceability" is defined as a period of time for which a product can service to function in its intended role. In the case of pipe systems used under our roadways, it would be the length of time that a sewer or culvert can function both as a conduit to carry water and a structure to support a roadway.

RESOURCE #CPJ-011
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DEFICIENT DRAINAGE SYSTEM LEADS TO DEMOLITION OF SUDBURY LIBRARY

The South Branch of the Greater Sudbury Public Library closed abruptly on a Friday afternoon in March 2009 due to structural concerns as a result of settlement of the foundation. A librarian turned people away at the entrance. “How long will you be closed?” the people asked. “Forever,” said the librarian. Then she locked the door. The library was built in late 1988 to early 1989. One year after the South Branch’s sudden closing, the 20-year old library building was demolished. It was gone in one day and all the rubble was carted away. A new library will be built at a cost to the City of Greater Sudbury of $4.8 million.

 

 

RESOURCE #CPJ-010
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TRENCHING SAFETY CAN COMPROMISE PLASTIC PIPE PERFORMANCE

Sewer pipes not only function as a conduit to transport stormwater or wastewater, but they must also have the load-carrying capacity for whatever is built above them. One fundamental difference between a rigid pipe like concrete, versus a flexible pipe like plastic or corrugated steel; is that a concrete pipe can be reinforced to accommodate any loading condition while the flexible pipe’s structural strength is provided by the pipe-soil interaction that must be properly constructed by the pipe installer. In other words, flexible pipe is much more installation sensitive because it relies completely on the soil envelope for its structural strength.

RESOURCE #CPJ-002
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CONCRETE PIPE REUSED FOR MARKDALE STORM SEWER

When specifying pipe material for pipelines and culverts, the design engineer, contractor, and eventual owner of the infrastructure system should consider the durability of that system. This is especially important within the context of designing and constructing buried infrastructure that is sustainable. Reusing products and materials is a fundamental element of sustainable development that results in infrastructure assets with long term value because of durability. Servicing of a site in Markdale, Ontario for a new Chapman’s ice cream production facility demonstrates the durability of concrete pipe, and how it contributes to sustainable development.

RESOURCE #CPJ-008
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CONCRETE PIPE REPLACES TWO YEAR OLD HDPE STORM SEWER

In the fall of 2009 construction commenced on the replacement of a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) storm sewer in a small town in South Dakota. Over 4,000 feet (1,220 metres) of 48” (1,200mm) diameter HDPE was replaced with reinforced concrete pipe (RCP). The HDPE had been installed only two years previously. The cost of the project in 2007 was $1,728,264. This project should be of interest to municipalities, consulting engineers and contractors in Ontario and across Canada as there are valuable lessons to be learned.

RESOURCE #CPJ-007
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PLANT PREQUALIFICATION PROGRAM

Setting a Standard of Excellence

In a perfect world, the overwhelming number of drainage products offered today could be assessed with one set of standards.  Unfortunately, each industry has specific requirements so stakeholders of drainage infrastructure must decide if the testing and inspection of a product should be performed by a first-party, second-party or third-party.

RESOURCE #CPJ-003
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ASSESSMENTS OF GRAVITY PIPE SYSTEMS

Initial Pipe Cost not the Primary Consideration

Engineers are facing budgetary challenges especially in the current recession. Designing and building infrastructure to stay within budgets becomes the primary focus and municipal and consulting engineers can lose sight of project life and service ability expectations.

RESOURCE #CPJ-001
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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS UNDER THE ONTARIO BUILDING CODE

Pipe products that do not meet the Ontario Building Code (OBC) are being promoted to engineers and contractors across the province of Ontario on a regular basis.  Similarly, pipe products that do not meet the National Plumbing Code of Canada (NPC) are also being promoted across the country.  Engineers occasionally unwittingly specify products that do not meet OBC requirements. These, in turn, are installed by contractors.  Both the engineer and contractor are placing themselves in a position of risk by violating the building code.  In particular, the engineer could be subject to disciplinary action by the Professional Engineers of Ontario (PEO).  Ignorance of a code is not a defense as far as the PEO is concerned.

RESOURCE #CPJ-009
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BLACK FIBRE PIPE

Are We Destined To Repeat History?

An article in the September 2010 issue of Environmental Science & Engineering Magazine (ES&E) by Dr. Mark Knighsheds some light on a pipe material called bituminous fibre pipe, commonly referred to as black fibre pipe. This pipe is no longer produced, however many municipalities in both Canada and the U.S. are currently dealing with unexpected failures of this product. The ES&E article gives a brief history of black fibre pipe:

RESOURCE #CPJ-006
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ONTARIO IS READY FOR STANDARDIZED PREBENCHED MH

Besides “manholes” being renamed “maintenance holes” in the mid 1990’s, the standards for precast concrete MH’s in Ontario have not needed to change significantly…until now.

RESOURCE #CPJ-004
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CLARIFYING HDPE STANDARDS IN CANADA

Ontario Concrete Pipe Association has three professional engineers on staff with almost sixty years experience in the gravity pipe and precast industries. Throughout the course of the year we are busy interacting with design professionals and conduct Lunch and Learn presentations and seminars.

RESOURCE #CPJ-005
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